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LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
The law deals with the relation between the mass of the reactants and products in physical changes or chemical reactions. The law was established by a French Chemist Antoine Lavoisier. He brought a revolution in the field of chemistry. Along with co-workers he gave the modern system of nomenclature of chemical substances and also won a noble prize. According to the law :
In all physical changes and chemical reactions , the total mass of the products is the same as the total mass of the reactants.

LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
The law was given by Dalton in 1803. It states that
If two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the weights of one the elements which combine with a fixed weight of the other in these compounds, bear a simple whole number ratio by weight .

LAW OF RECIPROCAL PROPORTIONS
The relationship between the masses of the elements when more than two such elements combine between themselves was studied by Ritcher. It was stated in the form of Law of Reciprocal Proportions as follows :
The ratio in which two elements combine separately with a fixed weight of the third element is either the same or is a simple whole number multiple of the ratio in which these elements combine with each other.

AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS
From the study of the Gay Lussac’s Law of combining volume , we have concluded that the gases always combine in simple whole number ratios of volumes. It was left to an Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro to establish a relationship between the volume of a gas and the corresponding number of molecules under given set of conditions of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis, known as Avogadro’s hypothesis, may be stated as :
Under similar conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain equal number of molecules.

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR MASSES
We know that the smallest portion of matter is atom which may or may not exist independently. But as it is extremely small in size, it is not possible to isolate a single atom and weight it. Therefore, a single atom cannot be weighed. The mass of an atom of hydrogen is 1.672 × 10–24 g. It is so small that a gram is very big unit to express the same. In order to solve this problem, it was suggested that the mass of an atom should be expressed as relative mass. It could be done by fixing some standard of a mass and then comparing the mass of the atoms of any element relative to it. It is this relative mass which is now known as the atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) or as unified mass (u).

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Physics-2

Physics

Physics is a study of basic laws of nature and their manifestation in different natural phenomena. Physics is the study of the physical world and matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.

Impact and uses of Physics :

• It can explain a phenomenon happening over a large magnitude with a simple theory.
• Experiments and observations are used to develop new theories for unidentified phenomena and improve old theories for existing phenomena.
• Development of devices using laws of physics.

Scope of Physics

Scope of Physics is vast as it covers quantities with length magnitude as high as 1040 m or more (astronomical studies of the universe) and as low as 10–14 m or less (the study of electrons, protons, etc). Similarly, the range of time scale goes from 10–22s to 1018s and mass from 10–30 kg to 1055 kg.
Physics is broadly divided into two types based on its scope. Classical Physics and Modern Physics. Classical physics deal with the macroscopic phenomena while modern physics deals with the microscopic phenomena.

Fundamental Forces in nature

The forces which we see in our day to day life like muscular, friction, forces due to compression and elongation of springs and strings, fluid and gas pressure, electric magnetic, interatomic and intermolecular forces are derived forces as their originations are due to a few fundamental forces in nature. A few fundamental forces are :
1. Gravitational Force :
2. Electromagnetic Force :

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Accounts I Economics I Commerce

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CBSE NCERT Science Class 10 Notes – Sexual Reproduction

A sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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